In view of C21, action on climate and biodiversity is extremely urgent and must be far-reaching. We have waited too long, are now in crisis, and have to act accordingly. It is 1.5°C, not 2.0°C, we must be aiming for. This means radical changes to the status quo. Short-term costs are inevitable, long-term, doing nothing would be a lot more costly. As a consequence, ‘emission free’ and ’nature positive’ are becoming key drivers of competitiveness.